How Consumer Ethnocentrism Can Predict Consumer Preferences
Yulianto, Jony Eko
Rembulan, Cicilia Larasati
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Consumer ethnocentrism is a concept defined as a consequent and conscious preference for local products over foreign, usually measured by using CETSCALE (Shimp & Sharma, 1987). Besides its popularity, this scale is criticized because of its too strong a normative and ideological character. We assume that consumer ethnocentrism also has a psychological aspect – it can be more automatic, sometimes unconscious, and also based on social identification mechanisms. To investigate these assumptions, we conducted three studies. The first one (N = 590), which was conducted in Poland, validated a new tool to measure consumer ethnocentrism: SCONET – a 6 -item scale, and its relation to brand preference (BPM). Moreover, we used Cameron’s social identification scale (Cameron, 2004). The analysis showed that social identification with one’s own group does not directly explain the choice of foreign vs. local products (BPM) but this relationship is moderated by consumer ethnocentrism (measured by SCONET). The second study, conducted in Poland on a representative nationwide sample (N = 1002), confirmed that SCONET is a single -factor scale with good statistical parameters (confirmatory factor analysis). The third study, conducted in Indonesia (N = 323), was a cross--cultural validation of the SCONET scale and explored the relationship found in study 1 between SCONET, social identity, and brand preference (BPM) in other cultures. The results confirmed the relationship between SCONET, social identity, and brand preference that was found in Poland.